DR. ZONGYI DEN

Teach Less, Learn More (TLLM) was first introduced by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong in 2004 and was subsequently launched by then Minister for Education Mr Tharman Shanmugaratnam in 2005. It was a curriculum initiative developed to address the gap between instructional practices and various educational initiatives introduced since 1997 under the Thinking Schools Learning Nation (TSLN) vision.

Employing a curriculum making framework articulated by Walter Doyle and Ian Westbury and on the basis of empirical evidence, I critically analyze how the TLLM initiative was translated into operational frameworks and enacted in classrooms. I discuss how we should come to terms with the gaps or discrepancies between what is envisioned at the policy level and what is embodied in operational frameworks, and between what is intended at the policy level and what is enacted in classrooms. I conclude by addressing the implications for evaluating curriculum initiatives from the vantage point of schooling as a social institution.