Considering current curriculum reform especially with emphasis on 21st century skills, our thinking tends to be more on new abilities to adapt ourselves to significant societal change. Certainly changes brought by recent technology as artificial intelligence and life science are very fundamental and huge in its impact. Thus, with such dramatic societal change as society 5.0, reform to bring change may look necessary and inevitable. In this sense, being unchanged may be interpreted negatively such as hindering the reform efforts of seeking more appropriate model of education. On the other hand, education is a human endeavor which is to sustain the society, and in this sense it has obviously a part which does not change. That is why it is worthwhile in reconsidering the importance of unchanged part. Because this is the era, in which too many things change too fast, the fundamental part should be sustained. In the presentation, the author reflects the historical development of mathematics education in Japan and develops the framework to interpret changed and unchanged parts within the history of mathematics education in Japan. And he considers the significance of balancing these two parts of education from the perspective of two words, “global” and “local”.