A SURVEY OF RESEARCH ON SKILBECK’S CURRICULUM FACTORS AS TOOLS FOR CONTEXT EVALUATION OF THE CURRICULUM

Kristine A. Cabling

At the core, both processes of situation analysis and curriculum evaluation involve collecting data from various sources and making decisions based on these data. These decisions result in the creation of a curriculum design or modifications to an existing one, or adjustments to the curriculum development process. Therefore, this presentation posits that Skilbeck’s curriculum factors may be used not only with Print’s (1993) situation analysis model but can also be used to investigate the context in Stufflebeam’s (2003) CIPP model as applied to curriculum evaluation. There are five external and five internal factors: cultural and social changes and expectations, educational system requirements and challenges, changing nature of content, teacher support systems, resources, pupils, teachers, school ethos, material resources, and perceived problems (Reynolds & Skilbeck, 1976). In situation analysis, these factors are used to provide more information that will help in making decisions on how to address curricular issues. In the CIPP model, the ten factors may be used to inform the boundaries of the evaluation given that they adequately cover the external and internal aspects of the school and the curriculum. Furthermore, given the objectives of the context evaluation, Skilbeck’s curriculum factors can serve as the basis of needs assessment, identifying the obstacles to meeting the needs, and listing the possible resources to fulfill these needs. Using a desk review of related studies, this presentation will delve into an in-depth look into each of the external and internal factors and how all of them relate to and affect the curriculum.