CHARISSE C. MALOLOT | FERDINAND POL L. MARTIN | CAMILLE G. QUIAMBAO | FATIMA B. VILLANUEVA

Online distance learning has become the main mode of learning delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the lack of familiarity of K-12 schools with online learning has brought about a myriad of challenges, especially in planning online instruction. This study is a review of literature on instructional planning solutions that address challenges in online distance instruction during a crisis. Using a review of literature published online during the pandemic, this study found out that most sources had proposed instructional strategies, media, and assessment tools often without explicitly citing sound pedagogical principles that undergird recommendations. These intuitive instructional solutions, although conceivable given the emergency situation, would therefore warrant further research. Also, very few sources in the literature explicitly proposed instructional design models in planning the specific elements of online instruction. The few models and frameworks proposed commonly emphasized the qualities of simplicity, flexibility, and empathy. While these models are a step in the right direction, the apparent lack of emphasis on the instructional design process in most literature may result in online learning that is incoherent and unresponsive to the needs and context of K-12 students during these trying times.