Plenary Abstracts 2020

Curriculum in a crisis: An opportunity?DR. MURRAY PRINTHow have school curricula navigated the series of crises experienced in recent decades that have challenged Western democracies? This paper reviews some of the challenges experienced and argues for taking advantage of the opportunity created by these crises to renegotiate and redirect school curricula towards providing a stronger foundation for democracy.
Content Selection and Organization in the 21st Century: School Subjects and Curriculum MakingDR. ZONGYI DENGWhat constitutes the content for teaching and learning in the 21st century?  How should content be selected and organized into school subjects in the curriculum? How are school subjects related to academic disciplines? These questions, concerning what is taught and learned in school, are vital for curriculum policy-making, curriculum planning and development, and classroom curriculum enactment in today’s context. To address the above questions, I first look at various conceptions of the aim of schooling and then examine three possible relationships between school subjects and academic disciplines. Afterward, I discuss the formation of a school subject from the perspective of curriculum making and then proceed to analyze three specific cases of constructing a school subject, with a focus on issues of content selection and organization for teaching and learning. I conclude by raising a set of questions concerning content selection and organization with a central concern for the development of human powers or capabilities (capacities or abilities, ways of thinking, understanding worlds) in the 21st century.  
Difficulties and Possibility of On-line Training: A Case of JICA Training on Mathematics Curriculum  DR. TAKUYA BABAAt the wake of COVID 2019, JICA training has been suspended. I have considered a new possibility of using the ICT to hold the JICA training which I have been engaged with. Previously, the trainees to JICA training in Japan who visit schools and training center, come to Japan in order to learn the teacher education system in Japan. However, they are not able to come to Japan. Considering an alternative way of training, we have proposed a new way of training so that we can address the remaining issue which cannot be attended to so far.
Curriculum Revision: Opportunities and Challenges in the Time of COVIDDR. CYNTHIA BAUTISTAThe SARS-COV 2 virus has significantly disturbed teaching and learning on a world scale. This two-part presentation begins with reflections on the challenges of curricular adjustments in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, from the vantage point of academic management in the University of the Philippines.  While such adjustments in a pandemic may not necessarily redound to a revision of discipline-based curricula, the second part of the presentation reflects on how the pandemic is catalyzing much-needed curricular and other education reforms in the broader context of disruptive technologies, societal and environmental challenges.
Coping with Curricular Challenges in Basic Education: The Malaysian ExperienceDR. ROHAIDA MOHD SAATCurriculum needs to be constantly reformed to address the ever-changing demands of society and the nation. Malaysia is no exception, and the most recent reform of basic education curricula began in 2011, and the curriculum is known as Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (SCPS) and Standard Curriculum for Secondary School. (SCSS). In any curriculum reform, there are issues that hamper curriculum to change in directions that it is meant to be. Among others is teachers’ enacted curriculum which focuses on how teachers implement the new or revised curriculum in the classroom as opposed to the intended curriculum. This presentation will discuss some of the strategies to address the curricular challenges of ensuring the implementation of the intended new curriculum.  
Teachers Feedback on Online Teaching and Learning Mode during COVID-19 Pandemic LockdownDR. SALLIMAH SALLEHDuring the COVID-19 pandemic global breakout, Brunei responded to the first wave of the contagious disease with a national lock-down, resulting in traditional face-to-face education to move entirely to online teaching and learning mode. This paper reports on teachers’ feedback on the new school norm of online teaching and learning mode, their preparation and implementation of the online teaching and learning mode; their expectations on their teaching performance and learning activities; and challenges they experienced. Most research suggested that the competencies, skills, and experiences of K-12 teachers implementing online teaching and learning mode are distinct from teachers teaching the traditional face to face mode. There is a substantial number of studies on teachers’ blended teaching mode of online and face-to-face mode. There is a shortage of research on teaching competencies, skills, and fully online teaching and learning mode experiences. The purpose of the current study is to identify teachers’ competencies and skills in implementing fully online teaching and learning mode during the COVID-19 school lock-down. An online survey questionnaire was distributed to private school teachers in Brunei at the end of the second term of school (conducted fully online). Some preliminary findings revealed teachers’ positive perceptions about their competencies, their concern about online learning risks and privacy, and their intentions to implement blended teaching and learning mode post-COVID-19 lock-down. This study has shown that teachers quickly adapted themselves to online teaching and learning mode’s immediate needs due to the COVID-19 lock-down. This study suggests that teachers respond positively to online teaching and learning mode and require more professional development to improve their competencies and skills for online teaching and learning.
Basic of the Singapore school curriculum: Citizenship, character and valuesDR. JASMIN B.Y. SIMThis talk will provide an overview of the primary and secondary school curriculum in Singapore, emphasizing citizenship, character, and values. Specifically, I will discuss the nature of citizenship, character, and values undergirding the curriculum from 1959 to the present; and the challenges and potential of such a curricular approach.
E-Service Learning to Empower Teachers’ Research Competence on Developing Remedial Curriculum during the PandemicDR. AURELIO VILBARThis case study aims to empower the Department of Education (DepEd) teachers in conducting action research (AR) on developing remedial programs with the help of volunteer graduate students during the pandemic. Using the IPARD Instructional Design, this research used interviews, reflections, and online focus-group discussion (FGD) in data gathering. In the Investigation stage, the Needs Assessment results showed that 12 DepEd teachers needed training on conducting AR to develop contextualized reading and mathematics remedial curriculum and modules for their low-performing students. In the Planning Stage, the teachers were grouped into four based on their students’ needs: Storybooks, Mobile Apps with Modules, Game-Based Modules, and Math Video Tutorials. Each group had 15 high schools (HS) student-participants.    In the Action Stage, 15 University of the Philippines Cebu Master of Education students enrolled in “Production of Materials for Language Learning” in September 2020 conducted an e-Service Learning in which these students volunteered to mentor the DepEd teachers in designing remedial tasks, contextualizing texts with readability testing, and online lay-outing. Mentoring was conducted in and outside my Zoom classes for 7 weeks. The modules which underwent pilot testing were used for 20-contact hours aside from the school’s required modules. Findings are the following: (1) From the pretest-posttest comparison, most participants made a significant improvement.  The HS students claimed the remedial modules were attractive, organized, clear. (2) The teachers claimed that the DepEd modules were good but needed to be contextualized to low-performing students. (3) The teachers gained confidence in making AR and planned to continue creating remedial programs. (4) The graduate students claimed the e-Service Learning developed their academic learning, personal growth, professional growth, and reciprocity. (4) E-Service learning can be an alternative pedagogy in the future normal.
“Kids are Kids: Corona-Proofing Early Childhood Programs  in the Republic of Korea”DR. CAROLYN U. RONQUILLOAs of January 26, 2021, around 18.8 percent of confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea, were in their 50s, followed by patients in their 20s and 60s. Only 3.75% were children below 10 years old. Social distancing (or social pause) is in progress. Generally, grade schools to university classes have been replaced by online instruction after the school opening was postponed three times, work from home is recommended and all group events have been canceled. Most of the people are avoiding crowded places. In Korea, even before COVID, it was common to wear masks regardless of diseases, so people are continuing to wear masks when they need to go out. Relying on an aggressive trace-test-and-quarantine program and mandatory use of face masks, South Korea has so far weathered this pandemic without major lockdowns. This presentation will introduce a brief background on how the South Korean government through its Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCPA) focused on this outbreak.  Significant adjustments have been put into action to deal with the new policies on COVID, especially those that involve early childhood programs for young children. A description of the current alternative practices of early childhood programs will be discussed. These will include the physical and temporal environments as well as curricular strategies that are being implemented. The innovative ways that both teachers and children are doing to address this outbreak will likewise be tackled.  Finally, observations and experiences of early childhood teachers and daycare workers will be shared.  
Hope and Peril of the COVID Era Shift to Online InstructionDR. ANDREW WALLOn March 12 of 2020 the School of Education at the University of Redlands, California USA moved all of its courses from in-person to online like so many institutions of higher education did in response to the COVID19 pandemic.  The School of Education strove to use this moment to have faculty use stronger instructional design and theory of curriculum development to guide their practice.  This presentation will describe what we did, how we conceptually-grounded our work, and what faculty and students reported about their experience moving to online learning.
Dealing with Remote Learning – from the perspective of Curriculum Implementation and DesigningDR. NG SOO BOONHuman society has faced many devastating challenges since civilization began, but the recent Covid-19 pandemic brings out a different level of global catastrophic thinking, a feeling of doom, negativity, helplessness but at the same time ‘couldn’t care less’ looms large and divided the society. Besides the display of the ‘cold’ truth of increasing daily records of many deaths, this pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of our traditional ways of dealing with education, economy, healthcare, infrastructure, facilities, and many more.  Nations are forced to consider remote learning where students, educators, and resources are no more physically present in a traditional classroom environment. Synchronous and Asynchronous technology-assisted learning is still hastily put together in many places to enable remote learning as physical distancing is necessary to curb the spread of the pandemic. Two issues that need to be tackled are the implementation of the current existing curriculum and designing the future curriculum. An online survey with both close and open-ended questions on the challenges and suggestions of improvement for remote learning (as the designated curriculum implementation method during a pandemic) was conducted in Malaysia where questionnaires were sent randomly to students and teachers (including lecturers) of all levels.  Interviews were conducted on a number of teachers and students. The findings of this survey will be presented in this paper. It revealed a difference in how students and teachers view remote learning. However, a longer-term and far-sighted planning need to be in place for curriculum design as human may face similar challenges over and over again. Remote learning has actually hastened the thinking of personalizing education and democratizing learning which has been debated since the beginning of this century. This paper will include some suggestions to rethink curriculum design, pedagogy, issues of equity of education to continue our quest for Education for All.    
Challenges and Strategies in 21st Century Online LearningDR. JACQUELINE CAHILLAs the pandemic entered all of our lives in full force, educators were required to quickly flex. In order to keep teaching, educators needed to problem-solve how to do so quickly online in order to continue educating students in a safe manner. Since eSchool of Graduate PME, at Air University, is an online college, we were already teaching online. However, there are residential colleges at Air University too, and some of those colleges reached out to us to guide and support them as they quickly switched to online delivery.    Since the majority of face-to-face educators, who were required to change to online teaching, didn’t have much support, guidance, or time what occurred was pandemic teaching and delivery – not effective online instruction and delivery. During this presentation, I will focus on teaching common challenges in online education and strategies to prevent or overcome those challenges.  Effective online education includes starting with a student orientation on how to be a successful online learner as face-to-face and online learning have different requirements. Next, I will move into how an instructor prepares online courses since a professor cannot change curriculum or directions on the spot in an online course. Instructor expectations are also crucial, which include consistent best practices, priorities of soft skills being infused in the curriculum, and how to teach and manage an online classroom. Then, I will share about how to improve overall academic excellence including Socratic questioning, Bloom’s Taxonomy, effective assessments, and strengthening innovative delivery. Lastly, I will cover the importance of initial and ongoing faculty development and review some overall key takeaways.  
Delivery of Professional Military Education in a COVID Environment Lessons LearnedDR. THOMAS J. GIBBONSThe faculty, staff, and students at the US Naval War College learned a number of lessons during the past several months as the institution transitioned to a fully online learning environment.  During this presentation, I plan to provide a brief background of the institution and share some of the most important lessons learned.  The lessons learned are broken in to the following categories – general lessons learned, hardware/software tools, teaching, and support issues.  
An Examination of Tailoring Specialized Content for Delivery Across Resident-Distance and Synchronous-Asynchronous ModalitiesDR. THOMAS GALVINWar College programs rely on a combination of content from both publicly available and military-specific sources. For example, course materials for topics in leadership and management may include a mix of readings and exercises from scholarship (e.g., organization theory, management science, and psychology) and military sources (e.g., case studies or scholarship focused on the military context). The result is often a loosely-coupled set of materials that facilitators use as a start point to satisfy the stated learning outcomes. However, this loose coupling can become a liability when the material is adapted for delivery via other means including synchronous distance and asynchronous means. I encountered this challenge when I adapted two elective courses or delivery over various distance modalities. These elective course covered leading organizational change and organization communication, and the modes included both synchronous and asynchronous means. I found that readings and activities that were loosely coupled from each other were difficult to adapt to differences in the respective course calendars and technical means. Based on these experiences plus witnessing how civilian distance programs develop their own proprietary materials, I propose that course materials should be more self-contained, i.e. more tightly coupled, to ensure consistent delivery.
Security Challenges and Strategies in Curriculum Implementation in Remote Learning  LtCol. RONNEL ALMAZANRemote learning provides an array of possibilities to both learners and educational providers, including design options to address the threats brought about by the pandemic. However, it also presents challenges in its implementation, particularly in its administration and delivery, as most sectors have not fully adapted to remote learning as a platform. Issues about costs, availability of equipment, misuse of technology, coupled with the resistance of students, instructors, and administrators, are just some of the problems encountered. This resistance leads to questions about the users’ awareness of the potential security risks and the guarantee of their privacy. These concerns further challenge the overall quality of remote learning.   On the other hand, remote learning provides opportunities to improve school systems, interconnectivity, teamwork, and stakeholder engagement to ensure effective programs. It also offers a way to develop appropriate arrangements to provide a safe and secure learning environment during the pandemic.
Answering the University Curricular Challenges during the Pandemic SituationDR. SUWARSIH MADYACOVID-19 has changed the world walks of life, including the world of higher education. This unexpected calamity has made all higher education stakeholders to rethink the way to manage resources to ensure that the learning processes go well without causing too much learning loss for students. The challenges are mostly posed by the forced switch from the face-to-face teaching and learning to online teaching and learning. The challenges are concerned with: the reconstruction of learning materials, the means to deliver the materials, monitoring students’ progress, and the assessment. The challenge in reconstructing is more technical than substantial since it requires the ICT literacy, which, most senior faculty members, who are digital migrants, is no easy job. The very short training has eased the job but still very unsatisfactorily at the beginning. The challenges to deliver the materials are confronted with two issues: funding and connection. The former can be eased through a sort of subsidy, but the latter cannot only be solved by the provider. This requires a proper adjustment of delivery means, which is left to each faculty member through a negotiation with the students. Another issue is related to the nature of learning. The online system for theoretical earning can be created more easily than that for practical learning. This issue remains if the situation does not improve. Another critical issue is related to monitoring students’ participation since the online system has not fully helped in monitoring students’ participation. Similar issues may be found in assessing students’ learning progress. This paper is aimed at sharing experiences in overcoming all the curricular challenges in a state university in Indonesia.  
MEDICAL EDUCATION AMIDST PANDEMICDR. LORNA ABADThe profound effects of the  current COVID-19 pandemic  in all aspects of daily life cannot be underestimated. When signs that the problem is unpredictable, one of the hard hit institutions are the schools for safety reasons. The crisis has made clear that  as educators , we need to adapt and innovate without sacrificing so  much the learning outcomes of our educational programs.   In the University of the Philippines College of Medicine, medical education consist of 5 years  for graduates of a 4 year baccalaureate program  and 7 years for students in the INTARMED program.   With the suspension of face-to-face instruction, the most critical years  affected were those in the last 2 years (Learning Unit 6 and 7) since these were mainly clinical rotations which involved actual patient care.    Will online teaching/learning be able to meet the outcomes expected of a UPCM graduate which includes: Clinical competence; Effective communication skills; leadership and management; generation and utilization of new knowledge; inter-professional practice;  systems-based approach to health care practice; lifelong personal and professional development; adherence to professional and ethical standards;  volunteerism,; nationalism and internationalism ;advocacy for social equity and accountability; effective teaching and organizational skills.   Emergency meetings and workshops were organized to help address the fears of the faculty and students. Questions which were raised  and will serve as points of my sharing were: Are the faculty ready to do online teaching ? Do the students have the necessary technological gadgets and interconnectivity especially those in the remote areas? Is the institution ready to provide the needs for online teaching?   In both academic and clinical environments, medical educators are responsible for training the next generation of healthcare professionals. The pandemic has been a catalyst for seismic shifts in how we approach medical education and still aim for excellence during these  challenging times.  
Experiencing different curriculum and instruction paradigm of higher education in ThailandDR. YOTSAWEE SAIFAHGlobal rapid economic growth has made major impacts on higher education institutes in Thailand for the past 10 years.  It seems that knowledge has become less important than skills and abilities to perform.  Graduates possessing in-depth knowledge in the subjects may find it difficult to find a job without exhibiting practical abilities and necessary skills such as foreign language communication skills, higher order thinking skills, and multitasking skills.  This notion implies that without any adjustment in higher education’s thinking approach, the unchanged paradigm of curriculum and instruction (C&I) in higher education may eventually become worthless.  Thus, recently, revision of learning outcomes has been set as the first priority to be changed in higher education programs in a number of universities in Thailand as it appeared that Thai society in general has now placed more emphasis on the ability to perform than on the core of knowledge possessed by the graduates. The sole in-depth understanding of knowledge in certain fields of studies is no longer addressed as the learning outcome of the programs but may be replaced by competency in specific areas.  Hence, higher education institutes inevitably adopt the concept of competency-based curriculum.  As learners’ expectations have changed, the nature of instruction must therefore be adjusted accordingly.  Directed instruction, namely lectures, is not sufficient to equip students with competence, but active learning instruction might be the key. Also, with the technological advances, students’ active learning could be much more powerful and efficient, especially the blended learning.