Paper Presentations 2020

Planning Online Distance Instruction in K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 PandemicCharisse C. Malolot   Ferdinand Pol L. Martin   Camille G. Quiambao   Fatima B. Villanueva      Online distance learning has become the main mode of learning delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the lack of familiarity of K-12 schools with online learning has brought about a myriad of challenges, especially in planning online instruction.   This study is a review of literature on instructional planning solutions that address challenges in online distance instruction during a crisis. Using a review of literature published online during the pandemic, this study found out that most sources had proposed instructional strategies, media, and assessment tools often without explicitly citing sound pedagogical principles that undergird recommendations. These intuitive instructional solutions, although conceivable given the emergency situation, would therefore warrant further research. Also, very few sources in the literature explicitly proposed instructional design models in planning the specific elements of online instruction. The few models and frameworks proposed commonly emphasized the qualities of simplicity, flexibility, and empathy. While these models are a step in the right direction, the apparent lack of emphasis on the instructional design process in most literature may result in online learning that is incoherent and unresponsive to the needs and context of K-12 students during these trying times.
Establishing the Virtual Art Room: Teachers’ Challenges and Practices in Online InstructionRomina Beltran-Almazan  The social hazards brought by the pandemic have placed art and other learning areas in a precarious situation. Teachers and other stakeholders are pressed to balance efficiency and flexibility in the implementation of the curriculum in this new environment. In this light, this study aims to present the Filipino art teachers’ experiences in online instruction, the problems they encountered, and their practices in addressing their difficulties. This descriptive study utilized a survey and focus group discussion (FGD) of public and private school art teachers as the main data gathering tools. The answers to the open-ended questions and FGD utterances were coded using software and subjected to thematic analysis.   The information gleaned from the analysis revealed that the key challenges in online art instruction centered on engaging the participation of students and parents or learning partners, availability of technology and art instructional materials, monitoring and evaluating student progress and authenticity of output, and integration of the four major art disciplines in lessons. Moreover, while there are no drastic changes in the teaching and evaluation strategies employed by teachers, the transfer to a virtual platform is a deterring aspect in the delivery of instruction due to restrictions in time, space, and other resources. To address this situation, teachers’ initiatives and school programs were reinforced to assist stakeholders in online instruction. These efforts focus on the development of teacher-made materials for both students and parents, provision of professional development activities (for all stakeholders) and additional resources, and strengthening of home-school partnerships. Furthermore, teachers remain positive and see this new platform as an opportunity to improve art instruction procedures despite the hindrances to online teaching and learning.
Promoting Learning Amidst Pandemic: A Thematic Content Analysis on the Curriculum Management Aspect of DepEd’s Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan (BE-LCP)Rocky Niño L. Manire  As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten the Philippines’ basic education system, the Department of Education came up with the Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan (BE-LCP) promulgated through Department Order No. 12, series of 2020. This document intends to carry on with the learning process among students while considering all the implemented precautionary measures and safety protocols from the government. Moreover, this BE-LCP responds to the call to ensure the continuity of quality education for all in the Philippines. Apparently, the BE-LCP has not yet been comprehensively discussed. Thus, the need to typify the curriculum management aspect of the BE-LCP in the public education program is necessary to understand its implications toward the Philippine education setting in the time of COVID-19.   Hence, this qualitative research sought to realize the following objectives: 1) To analyze a select number of department orders discussing the BE-LCP to adapt to the new normal education brought about by COVID-19; 2) To characterize the curriculum management aspect of the BE-LCP found in the documents through Thematic Content Analysis; 3) To determine the implications of these aspects to the educative process in the public education program.   Results of the content analysis revealed the four phases of curriculum management as ways by which the DepEd in the Philippines manages the curriculum in this time of pandemic: 1) Correcting Phase (Learning Content); 2) Connecting Phase (Learning Delivery); 3) Coping Phase (Learning Management); 4) Collecting Phase (Learning Assessment). This qualitative investigation entails that DepED has to further refine its strategies to manage the curriculum in all the phases to address 21st-century skills among the learners effectively. It also suggests the need to provide comprehensive seminars and orientations to parents and guardians regarding their role in the blended learning environment’s educative process. The paper recommends doing further empirical research on the impact of the BE-LCP implementation on Public Basic Education Institutions across the Philippines due to limited studies written on the same research topic.
Webinar as a tool in Enhancing the Implemented Curriculum and Supporting Education Stakeholders amid the PandemicFrancis Grace Duka-Pante  The University of the Philippines College of Education spearheads initiatives to support education stakeholders during the pandemic. Based on its Education Resilience and Learning Continuity Plan (ERLCP), the first webinar series put a premium on compassion, inclusion and innovation. It highlighted eight strategies: prioritize teacher and student safety, health, and well-being; recalibrate curricular and assessment priorities; enact flexible learning options; empower families for home-based learning; lead for resilience and innovation; redesign the learning environment; evaluate education financing; and create new knowledge. Meanwhile, the second series focused on sharing strategies using a disciplinal approach. Fourteen programs showcased best practices around remote learning’s cognitive and affective impact; coping and distress tolerance skills; philosophical perspectives on the education of the self with others; teaching responsible netizenship; remote education trends, challenges and issues in Southeast Asia; doing basic and action research during the pandemic; managing remote learning’s physical impact; nurturing happy kids in the new normal; reading in the time of COVID-19; conducting Science activities in the new normal; incorporating visual literacy strategies in online instruction; experiences, challenges, and insights in facilitating learning in the virtual language classroom; and engaging learners and using educational technology appropriately during remote learning. These webinars reached more than a million education stakeholders suggesting that the College has a large reach and support base. Viewers’ feedback showed that the initiative was able to enhance the implemented curriculum and address the education stakeholders’ needs. In order to sustain these efforts, the College plans to develop massive open online courses for teachers.
Is Blended Learning the Future for your School?Ani Rosa Almario   Reagan Austria  Blended Learning is one possibility in schools that are implementing online and remote learning this school year. As a learning approach that combines face-to-face classes in a brick and mortar location with online classroom activities, blended learning enables students to have some elements of control over their learning in terms of time, place, path and pace (Christensen et al., 2013). But how do schools transition from purely online and remote learning to blended learning?   This paper presents seven blended learning models, as described by Christensen, Horn, and Staker (2013), to explain the differences in the learning dynamics and requirements of each approach. The paper also examines the role of the stakeholders in the transition in order to effectively set up the school’s digital and physical learning spaces. The authors explain a four-step guide for schools that intend to pilot a blended learning approach in the next years: 1. Figure out your school’s context; 2. Decide on how you want to implement blended learning; 3. Build a team of blended learning champions; and 4. Agree on a transition schedule with your faculty.
Implementation of Flipped Classroom in a Microeconomic Class in Chonqing University, ChinaYao Zhuanhua   Ng Soo Boon  Flipped classroom is different from the traditional teacher-centered teaching mode. Under this pedagogical approach, students have various learning tasks assigned to them outside and inside the classroom. During the lockdown period of Covid-19, flipped classroom was implemented in a microeconomics class in Chongqing University, China. The teacher prepared the online course using Zhidao Apps. Students are provided with instructions to access resources in their own learning space and time prior to the interactive group learning mode with teacher and students in the same classroom. The teacher guides the students to master learning through activities such as direct teaching, setting tasks of different levels and types including group projects. In the class (physical class when lockdown was uplifted and synchronous face-to-face during lockdown), the teacher will answer students’ questions, explain key concepts, carry out class tests, guiding students in case analysis etc. A study was carried out to examine the level of students’ engagement, deep learning and learning outcome in this flipped classroom. This paper presents the preliminary findings obtained. Through the feedback from teachers and students, flipped classroom has the advantages of helping students to focus attention, deepening understanding, and improving self-learning ability. Students also like the active classroom atmosphere, opportunity to watch back videos, increased communication and engagement. However, students talked about too many tasks, heavy learning pressure and difficulty for students who lack initiative to keep up with the lesson.
Challenges in the Delivery and Evaluation of Instruction of Selected Public School Teachers in Times of COVID-19 PandemicRaymart D. Masangya    This study sought to answer the question, “What changes were done by teacher in selected public schools in the implementation and evaluation of synchronous instruction during this time of CoVID-19 pandemic?”   The researcher interviewed selected public school teachers and utilized “Analysis of Narrative” as research design to deepen the statements. It is a paradigm thinking of gathering themes based from the stories or statements of the respondents (Polkinghorne, 1995). The collected data was transcribed and encoded to find the common themes from the teachers’ responses. The results presented the challenges that the teachers encountered during the CoVID-19 Pandemic in designing instructional materials are evident in breadth, variety, appropriateness, and balance due to limitation of resources and knowledge, and the diversity of learners. The study also found out that feedback became too demanding due to time constraint and the evaluation was affected due to the reliability of the results from the formative and summative assessment submitted by the students. Lastly, the teachers answered that because of the CoVID-19 Pandemic, they valued more the use of technology in terms of giving instructions and evaluation, and the utilization of available educational technology tools to bridge learning.  
Problems and Solutions of Learning Activities during Pandemic Covid-19 in SD Islam Al Azhar 55 Yogyakarta, IndonesiaIyut Ayudya  The Covid-19 has posed a number of problems in my school, which is a private one, but through listening to stakeholders, we finally managed to overcome them. The problems include: (1) the parents’ dissatisfaction with the decreasing amount of learning with the same amount of fee, (2) the parents’ increasing burden of working from home while being obliged to mentor their students’ online learning, (3) the widening gap between students in terms of learning achievement due to different levels of learning independence, (4)  first year students’ failure to learn to read and write due unexpected online learning, and (5)  and the low quality learning due to the unpreparedness of both teachers and students. We worked hard to solve the problems by: (1) establishing better communication with parents through multiple channels – WA, letter, WA media, telephone, zoom class for parents, home visit and Parents’ Meeting to get as many inputs as possible, (2) webinar parenting, (3) developing blended learning, (4) giving extra classes, (5) providing various platforms (Zoom, Teachers Pay Teachers, Canva, Get Epic, My On, Google Apps, Kahoot, Polleverywhere,, Marshal Cavendish Viewer, Wordwall, Quiziz and Virtual-virtual Tour), and (6) drive-through (delivering learning materials and aids to students’ homes on a term basis.
Home-based Instruction from the Lens of Para-Teachers: Stories UntoldMario C. Lozada Jr.   Rosellie R. Temanel            Dalla Rose B. Lozada    This qualitative phenomenological study investigated the experiences of para-teachers in which the purpose was to explore the lived experiences of parents and guardians termed as para-teachers who are serving as learning facilitators of their kindergarten learners in a home-based instruction platform. The study provided an avenue for para-teachers to express their insights and perceptions of their experiences and realizations while performing the duty of an instructional organizer. Data were gathered using in-depth interview and FGD. These research participants were selected using the purposive sampling technique for the researchers to be easily adapted to the experiences of the participants and to facilitate the gathering of information. Through thematic analysis, results showed that para-teachers’ lived experiences can be categorized into three themes, namely; blended expressions which describes their perceptions about the platform, language gap and pedagogical challenges which pronounce their difficulty in understanding the mother tongue as medium of the modules and their struggles in employing varied teaching strategies, respectively and as well as bridging the digital divide since some of them are digitally illiterate. The study further revealed that para-teachers realized about the embrace of the new normal system of education or else, their children will not get formal education amid the pandemic; digital technology differences that they seek for digital capacitation to bridge the gap between them and their Gen Z learners; and the need for significant other to ensure quality time and instruction with their children through the tutors. This study just confirmed what has been identified or recognized as the limitations of home-based instruction. Hence, it is recommended that the school management should address para-teachers’ struggles upon navigating the new normal platform without mentioning the instructional innovations necessary to assist them in their plight. They should also be provided with sufficient training to bridge this educational paradigm shift.
Cultivating Health, Wellbeing, and Coping Lessons in the Curriculum Amid COVID-19Maria Cecilia V. Zamora  At this point in time, it has become apparent that the shift to virtual learning is necessary to the educational system. This is both beneficial and detrimental to learning. In fact, studies revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic has presented many challenges to students, educators, and parents. So far, researches show that virtual learning poses threat to mental, emotional, social, physical and functional health and wellbeing of both young and adult learners. Thus, experts in the fields of education and psychology incorporated various coping strategies, resources, and lessons on mindfulness, brain breaks, health and fitness breaks.   Studies indicate that these have been linked to a range of positive outcomes such as improvement in focusing, emotional regulation, increased feeling of calmness, and relaxation. Furthermore, they   may be effective for reducing stress and burnout, anxiety, decrease in tiredness, aches, and pain.    In this regard, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of the impact of virtual learning, to gather and present interventions (lessons and strategies) through systematic review. The data gathered will be recommended and utilized for instruction.
Exploring the Potentialities of International Online Training: A Case of JICA Training “Mathematics Curriculum Development at Primary Level”Nanae Yasukawa   Yoshitaka Abe   Ayumi Oka   Satoshi Kusaka   Takuya BabaConventional JICA training programs conducted in Japan had challenges in terms of application of learnings gained through the training to their respective countries and fields. On such an occasion, the spread of COVID-19 gave us an opportunity to explore a new way of training using online. Thus, this study aimed to explore the potentialities of international online training to strengthen capacity for mathematics curriculum development by using the case of JICA training.   Online training had been conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 by Hiroshima University and 10 trainees from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Zambia participated. Training focused on developing the survey plan and its implementation in their respective place with colleagues under the advice of instructors, and examining recommendations for curriculum revision based on the evidence. In addition, trainees were encouraged to integrate the perspectives of continuous professional development as a mathematics curriculum specialist into their daily reflection. The online lectures with all the trainees were held three times and trainees and instructors continuously communicated via email and Zoom during the period between each training for further discussion. Through this training, trainees were able to concretize the process of making recommendations for curriculum revision based on the local evidence and they were also able to integrate the perspectives of professional development into their daily reflection while utilizing ICT.   As for the potentialities of international online training, this case revealed that it is possible for trainees to continuously apply the learning gained from the training to their respective countries and fields.
Quo Vadis, curriculum? Fostering actor-oriented curriculum implementation with and post-COVID19Louie B. Dasas  Curriculum implementation refers to how teaching, learning, and assessment happens. It has two dimensions: curriculum translation and actual curriculum implementation. The COVID19 pandemic challenged existing educational systems leading to curriculum delivery disruptions. Thus, it is crucial to look into why present school curricula fall short of being “pandemic-proof” (Morelli, 2021; Arnove, 2020; UNESCO, 2020). Current literature documents macro-level curriculum implementation strategies of schools but lacks exploration of actual teachers’ curriculum translation processes. Curriculum at the time of a pandemic can be best understood from the lens of lived experiences (Murillo, 2021) of the key actors – teachers. Examining teachers’ decision-making dynamics and identifying the most influential factors affecting their decisions are valuable in understanding how curriculum implementation happens in the realms of a global pandemic. This descriptive case study utilized in-depth interviews of selected teachers in Metro Manila (n=12). This study used an actor-oriented perspective (Penuel et al., 2014) to analyze teachers’ decisions about curricular elements during curriculum translation. An actor-oriented perspective emphasizes the importance of teacher’s point of view and focuses on teachers’ decision-making and influential underlying factors. Findings reveal learning outcomes, nature of subject-matter, students’ contexts and needs, and assessment practices were the most influential factors affecting teachers’ curriculum translation-related decision-making during COVID19. Other factors like instructional-design principles, school policies, and instructional materials’ availability were the least influential. Further, findings posit a processual paradigm of curriculum translation where teachers are key actors. This study underscores the importance of teacher agency and teacher leadership in curriculum implementation, with and post-COVID19.
Towards the Implementation and Development of Mathematics Curriculum Based on Critical Mathematics EducationYuichiro Hattori   Hiroto Fukuda   Takuya BabaIn the COVID-19 pandemic, it is an urgent issue to develop human resources who can deal with so-called “trans-scientific problems,” which are “questions which can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science” (Weinberg, 1972). The ability to critically understand the claims of experts and to make decisions through public discussions and collaborations with citizens who have diverse values is a literacy for all people to survive in the future. The concept of critical mathematics education proposed by Skovsmose (1994) suggests the necessity for a deeper understanding of social situations and thus for critical citizenship through mathematics, which is consistent with an approach to dealing with trans-scientific problems in the context of mathematics education. However, research on “critical mathematics education” has pointed out the absence of a coherent curriculum as a challenge (Brantlinger, 2013) .    This study aims to construct a model curriculum that embodies the philosophy of critical mathematics education. As a methodology, we adopt the “socio-critically open-ended approach,” which is a development of the “mathematically open-ended approach” from the perspective of sociality. This approach will function as a teaching method that is consistent with mathematics education from primary to secondary education. In addition, we propose the “sociality of mathematical problem-solving” as one of the principles for the curriculum.
School-Based Teacher Training for Migration to Online LearningJennifer Christine Clasara Fajardo   Eiman Yassin  With the Covid-19 pandemic that affected almost all the countries in the world, many institutions in various countries have adapted their structures and procedures to still be able to address the challenges brought about by the pandemic. COVID-19 has created serious challenges for Pre K-12 schools and communities that may permanently change the way educational services are provided and have forced in a very short amount of time for our school districts to completely reconceptualize how educational services were administered (Arthaud and Adamson, 2020). Most countries transitioned to emergency remote learning and migrated to online learning even without formal pre-service training or workshops.   Due to the limited time frame, willingness of the school stakeholders to resume classes, and challenges of not being able to meet and attend a training workshop in person, many schools adapted to having pre-service teacher training online. One such school is a private institution in Pandi, Bulacan that sought assistance on how to address an emergency shift to online learning. The process of preparing, developing, and executing the teacher training workshop was done through ADDIE. In the Analyzing step, the school administrators and faculty analyzed and identified the pressing issues that must be faced. The results of this discussion were then laid out with the facilitators of the teacher training workshop. In the Designing and Developing steps, the school administrator and facilitators would have meetings and consultation in the 4-6 weeks prior to the workshop. Lastly, during the two-day workshop, Implementation and Evaluation steps were executed through Zoom platform utilizing Google Slides for the presentation part. Google Forms was used to elicit the feedback from the participants of the teacher training workshop. While there were still challenges after the workshop and once the classes began, the teacher training workshop was a good start on how to tackle such unexpected interruptions and challenges such as covid-19. The experience from this activity can help in designing future teacher and teaching-related activities. 
Expanding the Access: Innovated Online Programme on Malaysian Chinese Literature Appreciation during the PandemicFlorence Kuek   Ng Soo Boon  The Covid-19 Pandemic and Movement Control Order (MCO) in Malaysia raised unprecedented challenges as face-to-face (F2F) interaction is no more the preferred choice. Tapping into the challenge cum opportunity, namely, taking teaching and learning from physical setting to the online platform, the Malaysian Chinese Writers Association and two other collaborating units worked quickly to innovate an online program on Malaysian Chinese (Mahua) Literature Appreciation, customizing it for the Chinese school teachers all across Malaysia. This 10-week online program was designed in response to the feedback of Chinese teachers expressing their own lack of understanding of Mahua literature in the government textbooks and called for more support for training in literature pedagogy (Malaysia Sin Chew Daily, 6 June 2020). The number of registrants for the program reached 500 pax, confirming the demand for the program as well as the plus point of running it online. It was obvious that the online mode facilitated accessibility and equity in participation for Chinese teachers, even those from far and remote places on the East Coast and East Malaysia. The program, which discussed one text from the Elementary textbook and one text from the High School textbook each week, provided a guided framework on literature appreciation with easy-to-understand teaching aids. Interactions were encouraged both in the platform chat box and on a dedicated social media site. This study reports on the rationale of the study, the research design, and the program structure of Phase One (1) of the program. The final portion of this study highlights the researchers’ reflection on lessons learned from such an innovative online program that bridges across the geographical divides to answer the needs of the time.
Challenges in Online Classroom: Learner’s PerspectivesJoshua Dobbs  Distance and online learning has brought the reality of a post-secondary education to countless people who many of whom would have otherwise not been able to begin or continue an academic career (Huber, 2014). Not surprisingly, the military, with its various tasks and responsibilities, like vagrancy and deployment, have also embraced and encouraged online learning for its members, active and otherwise. Military members who wish to begin a degree path or continue to pursue graduate courses now have the capability to attend classes even if they are operationally deployed (TRADOC, 2011). Moreover, virtually all soldiers, despite geographic location, are eligible for military education benefits and online learning — even while serving in a war zone (Murray, 2013). According to 2012 data from Inside Higher Ed, 18% of military undergraduates took all their courses online, as compared to 12% of their nonmilitary peers (TBS, 2018). Each year, an average of 300,000 degree-seeking active-duty service members attend college courses on base, off-base, or online using tuition assistance benefits available through the Department of Defense’s Voluntary Education Program (Military OneSource, 2014). Hence, many learning programs and benefits are available and utilized by military online learners in a war zone. Education programs and benefits, such as, GoArmyEd, and the Post-9/11 GI Bill, have had major impacts on deployed military learners (Murray, 2013).   Having been in the military for almost 13 years now, I wanted to prepare myself for life after the military. I hope to be able to have a more productive and higher-earning career. Therefore, I took advantage of the programs they have in the military. Since 2008, I have been an on and off online learner trying to complete my classes and eventually got my degrees in Aircraft Maintenance and Construction Technology. A few years ago, I embarked again in this online learning journey in wanting to complete a Doctorate in Physical Therapy.   My short presentation will highlight my own challenges as an online learner in the military throughout the years and what challenges I have overcome and continue to overcome in the online classroom setting. Hopefully, my humble sharing of my experiences can be useful in the education field.
Developing an online STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art/Agriculture, and Mathematics) curriculum for young children in IndonesiaManabu Sumida   Mami Fujikawa   Yumiko Nishimiya    This study is a part of an industry-university collaboration project to disseminate Japanese-style education overseas. COVID-19 pandemic led to nationwide school shutdowns around the world in 2020. In the difficult settings, we have tackled developing a five-day online STEAM curriculum for young children in Indonesia that could be conducted from Japan. The theme of the curriculum is ‘vegetables’. Young children are expected to study the shape, color, and size of vegetables; parts and growth of vegetables; and vegetable cooking. They use colored papers and scissors to make paper vegetables, sing and dance vegetable songs, and tell creative stories about vegetables. These curricula are conducted for four year-old young children in Indonesia by Japanese university students, online, with the help of Indonesian teachers, onsite. The daycare & learning center is supported by Human Holdings Co., Ltd. and Human Star Child Co., Ltd. The curriculum consists of five lessons and each lesson is 30 minutes per day for five days. The theme, ‘vegetables,’ is a good example of the STEAM curriculum, especially for ‘A (Art/Agriculture)’ in the context of Asian countries and is connected to the UNDP Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as Goal 1, 2 and 3 to eradicate poverty and realize a healthy sustainable world.  
A Blended-learning Experimental Study in teaching Marketing Principle in Xi’an ChinaTian Yuan   Ng Soo Boon  During Covid-19 pandemic, an experimental study on Blended Learning (BL) was conducted in a Marketing Principle Class in Xi’an University.  BL intervention emphasizes collaborative construction of learning and critical reflective dialogue between teacher and students, based on the theory of Community of Inquiry (CoI). In the process of creating deep learning experiences through BL, three interdependent elements are needed, these are cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence (Garrison et al., 1999). These three elements interact with each other to jointly construct the theoretical framework of BL intervention experienced by participants in this study.  The intervention is made up of three stages which are: (I) engagement with goals/direction, (II) engagement with participants, and (III) engagement with content. In Stage I, pre-class tasks are given online by the teacher in the form of Marketing case study assignments, it is through this task that students are accustomed to the goals of the lesson. Stage II encompasses group discussion orchestrated by the teacher either online or face-to-face, questioning and students’ presentation takes place. Third stage is where the teacher provides direct input on the topic and raises questions to be answered by students. The general self-efficacy scale, GSES(Schwarzer, 1981) was administered to the experimental and control class as pre-test and post-test. Preliminary findings revealed that compared with traditional learning in control class, BL is helpful to improve students’ self-efficacy and scores in Marketing examination. BL intervention has a greater impact on students with good and poor grades but not so for those with moderate grades. Classroom atmosphere of BL is active and students’ participation is higher.
Use of Online Discussion Forum via Facebook Groups in Remote LearningMelanie Joy Gunio  Discussions are necessary for learning in a class to take place. With the COVID-19 pandemic, however, opportunities for discussion have been limited depending on learners’ access to technology and the Internet, especially in the Philippines where this is one of the major issues in the shift to remote learning. This limitation has profound influences in the process and quality of the learning experience where the reduction of transactional distance (Moore, 2019) is critical through the development of the interdependent elements of the teaching, social and cognitive presence (Garrison, Anderson, Archer, 2000).   Facebook is one of the main social media platforms used by Filipinos who are reported to spend the greatest amount of time online (Kemp, 2021). As such, with the onset of the pandemic, most teachers turned to Facebook and used it as a learning platform to reach more students. With regards to promoting class discussion, the online discussion forum (ODF) is a well-known instructional strategy for remote learning, usually conducted through discussion boards in various learning platforms (Vijayavalsalan, 2018).   This study aimed to determine how an ODF using Facebook, can be used successfully as an instructional strategy for remote learning in tertiary education. The research used case study method by documenting qualitative data on learner participation in ODFs via Facebook groups across five tertiary education classes. This was conducted during the second semester of AY 2020-2021 when COVID-19 forced universities to move to remote learning. Content analysis of documented observations in learner participation was done to reveal themes on practices that promote effective usage.   The study reported that Facebook groups can be used effectively as an ODF tool for instruction in remote learning given the following considerations: (1) questions which stimulate intellectual and/or affective interaction with content, instructor, and peers; (2) timely instructor feedback for stirring the direction of conversations; (3) asynchronous discussions taken tentatively for complementing with synchronous sessions; (4) appropriateness, frequency, and timeliness of postings. As a ubiquitous and accessible platform, Facebook groups used as ODFs have the potential of allowing learning to reach a wider group of students but only with a careful consideration of how users shape and are shaped by this media platform.
Adult Learning Principles Applied to Remote LearningAquino, R;   Alvarez, JM,   Bonol, R.   Escrupulo, Z.,   Fernandez, M.,   Olegario, L.  This paper aims to present a video on adult learning principles that were used in doing remote learning for adult learners.  The video was developed as part of a graduate class.  The aim of the presentation is to give the educator audience ideas on how adult learning principles can be implemented in their remote learning classes.   The development process included an analysis of the graduate education class to determine the implementation of adult principles that worked.  The results show that the teaching strategies fostered both independent and collaborative learning skills.  These were found to be motivating and helped students become engaged in class.  The tasks that tapped higher order thinking skills include analysis of cases, design and creation of lesson plans, and other performance-based tasks.    The different types of assessment such as self-assessment, peer-assessment, and embedded assessment were found to be effective.  The immediate feedbacking mechanism through the Facebook group, Zoom group consultations, and discussions through messenger. Collaborative synchronous and asynchronous tasks, authentic performance-based assessment and self-assessment, prompt feedback, and reflection activities were some of the highlights.  It is supposed that andragogy can also be applied to pedagogy.